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Friday, June 23, 2017

इस टेक्नोलॉजी से सब कुछ बदल जायेगा - CRISPR | How Genetic Engineering Will Change Everything - CRISPR



इस टेक्नोलॉजी से सब कुछ बदल जायेगा - CRISPR | How Genetic Engineering Will Change Everything - CRISPR 


Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genome using biotechnology. It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms. New DNA is obtained by either isolating and copying the genetic material of interest using molecular cloning methods or by artificially synthesizing the DNA. A construct is usually created and used to insert this DNA into the host organism. As well as inserting genes, the process can also be used to remove, or "knock out", genes. The new DNA can be inserted randomly, or targeted to a specific part of the genome.
Genetic engineering techniques have been applied in numerous fields including research, agriculture, industrial biotechnology, and medicine. Enzymes used in laundry detergent and medicines such as insulin and human growth hormone are now manufactured in GM cells, experimental GM cell lines and GM animals such as mice or zebrafish are being used for research purposes, and genetically modified crops have been commercialized.

A designer baby : is a human embryo that has been genetically modified, usually following guidelines set by the parent or scientist, to produce desirable traits. This is done using various methods, such as gene therapy or PGD. This technology is the subject of ethical debate, bringing up the concept of genetically modified "superhumans" to replace modern humans.
Conversely, this technique can also help select for desirable traits by avoiding implanting embryos with genes that have serious diseases or disabilities. Examples of desirable traits that could be selected would be increased muscle mass, voice pitch, or high intelligence. Overall, the procedure of PGD to select for a positive trait is referred to the creation of a “designer baby”.



DNA stores biological information. The DNA backbone is resistant to cleavage, and both strands of the double-stranded structure store the same biological information. This information is replicated as and when the two strands separate. A large part of DNA (more than 98% for humans) is non-coding, meaning that these sections do not serve as patterns for protein sequences.

Genes come in different varieties, called alleles. Somatic cells contain two alleles for every gene, with one allele provided by each parent of an organism. Often, it is impossible to determine which two alleles of a gene are present within an organism's chromosomes based solely on the outward appearance of that organism. However, an allele that is hidden, or not expressed by an organism, can still be passed on to that organism's offspring and expressed in a later generation


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