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Friday, June 23, 2017

इस टेक्नोलॉजी से सब कुछ बदल जायेगा - CRISPR | How Genetic Engineering Will Change Everything - CRISPR

इस टेक्नोलॉजी से सब कुछ बदल जायेगा - CRISPR | How Genetic Engineering Will Change Everything - CRISPR 

Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genome using biotechnology. It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms. New DNA is obtained by either isolating and copying the genetic material of interest using molecular cloning methods or by artificially synthesizing the DNA. A construct is usually created and used to insert this DNA into the host organism. As well as inserting genes, the process can also be used to remove, or "knock out", genes. The new DNA can be inserted randomly, or targeted to a specific part of the genome.
Genetic engineering techniques have been applied in numerous fields including research, agriculture, industrial biotechnology, and medicine. Enzymes used in laundry detergent and medicines such as insulin and human growth hormone are now manufactured in GM cells, experimental GM cell lines and GM animals such as mice or zebrafish are being used for research purposes, and genetically modified crops have been commercialized.

A designer baby : is a human embryo that has been genetically modified, usually following guidelines set by the parent or scientist, to produce desirable traits. This is done using various methods, such as gene therapy or PGD. This technology is the subject of ethical debate, bringing up the concept of genetically modified "superhumans" to replace modern humans.
Conversely, this technique can also help select for desirable traits by avoiding implanting embryos with genes that have serious diseases or disabilities. Examples of desirable traits that could be selected would be increased muscle mass, voice pitch, or high intelligence. Overall, the procedure of PGD to select for a positive trait is referred to the creation of a “designer baby”.

DNA stores biological information. The DNA backbone is resistant to cleavage, and both strands of the double-stranded structure store the same biological information. This information is replicated as and when the two strands separate. A large part of DNA (more than 98% for humans) is non-coding, meaning that these sections do not serve as patterns for protein sequences.

Genes come in different varieties, called alleles. Somatic cells contain two alleles for every gene, with one allele provided by each parent of an organism. Often, it is impossible to determine which two alleles of a gene are present within an organism's chromosomes based solely on the outward appearance of that organism. However, an allele that is hidden, or not expressed by an organism, can still be passed on to that organism's offspring and expressed in a later generation


Sunday, June 18, 2017

ब्लैक होल क्या है ? ब्लैक होल कैसे बनता है ? What is Black Hole ? how black hole is formed? [Hindi]

ब्लैक होल क्या है ? ब्लैक होल कैसे बनता है ? What is Black Hole ? how black hole is formed?

A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass can deform spacetime to form a black hole. The boundary of the region from which no escape is possible is called the event horizon. Although the event horizon has an enormous effect on the fate and circumstances of an object crossing it, no locally detectable features appear to be observed. In many ways a black hole acts like an ideal black body, as it reflects no light. Moreover, quantum field theory in curved spacetime predicts that event horizons emit Hawking radiation, with the same spectrum as a black body of a temperature inversely proportional to its mass. This temperature is on the order of billionths of a kelvin for black holes of stellar mass, making it essentially impossible to observe.

Objects whose gravitational fields are too strong for light to escape were first considered in the 18th century by John Michell and Pierre-Simon Laplace. The first modern solution of general relativity that would characterize a black hole was found by Karl Schwarzschild in 1916, although its interpretation as a region of space from which nothing can escape was first published by David Finkelstein in 1958. Black holes were long considered a mathematical curiosity; it was during the 1960s that theoretical work showed they were a generic prediction of general relativity. The discovery of neutron stars sparked interest in gravitationally collapsed compact objects as a possible astrophysical reality.

Black holes of stellar mass are expected to form when very massive stars collapse at the end of their life cycle. After a black hole has formed, it can continue to grow by absorbing mass from its surroundings. By absorbing other stars and merging with other black holes, supermassive black holes of millions of solar masses may form. There is general consensus that supermassive black holes exist in the centers of most galaxies.

Black holes can be big or small. Scientists think the smallest black holes are as small as just one atom. These black holes are very tiny but have the mass of a large mountain. Mass is the amount of matter, or "stuff," in an object.

Another kind of black hole is called "stellar." Its mass can be up to 20 times more than the mass of the sun. There may be many, many stellar mass black holes in Earth's galaxy. Earth's galaxy is called the Milky Way.

The largest black holes are called "supermassive." These black holes have masses that are more than 1 million suns together. Scientists have found proof that every large galaxy contains a supermassive black hole at its center. The supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way galaxy is called Sagittarius A. It has a mass equal to about 4 million suns and would fit inside a very large ball that could hold a few million Earths.

Scientists think the smallest black holes formed when the universe began.

Stellar black holes are made when the center of a very big star falls in upon itself, or collapses. When this happens, it causes a supernova. A supernova is an exploding star that blasts part of the star into space.

Scientists think supermassive black holes were made at the same time as the galaxy they are in.

A supernova is an astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a massive star's life, whose dramatic and catastrophic destruction is marked by one final titanic explosion. This causes the sudden appearance of a "new" bright star, before slowly fading from sight over several weeks or months.

A nebula is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other ionized gases. Originally, nebula was a name for any diffuse astronomical object, including galaxies beyond the Milky Way.

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Vichitra 4u

Tuesday, June 6, 2017

समुद्र आखिर कितना गहरा है | How deep is the Ocean , first rain on earth

समुद्र आखिर कितना बड़ा और गहरा है | 
How deep is the Ocean , first rain on earth 

Most scientists agree that the atmosphere and the oceans accumulated gradually over millions and millions of years with the continual 'degassing' of the Earth's interior.
According to this theory, the ocean formed from the escape of water vapor and other gases from the molten rocks of the Earth to the atmosphere surrounding the cooling planet.
After the Earth's surface had cooled to a temperature below the boiling point of water, rain began to fall—and continued to fall for centuries. As the water drained into the great hollows in the Earth's surface, the primeval ocean came into existence. The forces of gravity prevented the water from leaving the planet.
The history of Earth concerns the development of the planet Earth from its formation to the present day. Nearly all branches of natural science have contributed to the understanding of the main events of the Earth's past. The age of Earth is approximately one-third of the age of the universe. An immense amount of geological change has occurred in that timespan, accompanied by the emergence of life and its subsequent evolution.
Earth formed around 4.54 billion years ago by accretion from the solar nebula. Volcanic outgassing probably created the primordial atmosphere and then the ocean; but the atmosphere contained almost no oxygen and so would have been toxic to most modern life including humans. Much of the Earth was molten because of frequent collisions with other bodies which led to extreme volcanism. It was quite hot the time of formation. As the planet started to cool, clouds formed. Rain formed the oceans. The thunderstorms and torrential rain may have started as early as 4.4 Ga.
And the rain lasted for many years.
The Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench is the deepest known point in Earth's oceans. In 2010 the United States Center for Coastal & Ocean Mapping measured the depth of the Challenger Deep at 10,994 meters (36,070 feet) below sea level with an estimated vertical accuracy of ± 40 meters. If Mount Everest, the highest mountain on Earth, were placed at this location it would be covered by over one mile of water.
The first depth measurements in the Mariana Trench were made by the British survey ship HMS Challenger, which was used by the Royal Navy in 1875 to conduct research in the trench. The greatest depth that they recorded at that time was 8,184 meters (26,850 feet).
Marine pollution occurs when harmful, or potentially harmful, effects result from the entry into the ocean of chemicals, particles, industrial, agricultural and residential waste, noise, or the spread of invasive organisms. Most sources of marine pollution are land based. The pollution often comes from nonpoint sources such as agricultural runoff, wind-blown debris and dust. Nutrient pollution, a form of water pollution, refers to contamination by excessive inputs of nutrients. It is a primary cause of eutrophication of surface waters, in which excess nutrients, usually nitrogen or phosphorus, stimulate algae growth.
Many potentially toxic chemicals adhere to tiny particles which are then taken up by plankton and benthos animals, most of which are either deposit or filter feeders. In this way, the toxins are concentrated upward within ocean food chains.

When pesticides are incorporated into the marine ecosystem, they quickly become absorbed into marine food webs. Once in the food webs, these pesticides can cause mutations, as well as diseases, which can be harmful to humans as well as the entire food web.
Toxic metals can also be introduced into marine food webs. These can cause a change to tissue matter, biochemistry, behaviour, reproduction, and suppress growth in marine life. Also, many animal feeds have a high fish meal or fish hydrolysate content. In this way, marine toxins can be transferred to land animals, and appear later in meat and dairy products.

In this video we capture :
-Formation of Earth
-First Rain on Earth
-Formation of Ocean
-Mariana trench depth


भारत के इतिहास में सबसे महान गणितज्ञ | Most Intelligent Mathematician in History of INDIA

भारत के इतिहास में सबसे महान गणितज्ञ | Most Intelligent Mathematician in History of INDIA

Shakuntala Devi was an Indian writer and mental calculator, popularly known as the "human computer".
A child prodigy, her talent earned her a place in the 1982 edition of The Guinness Book of World Records.
Devi travelled the world demonstrating her arithmetic talents, including a tour of Europe in 1950 and a performance in New York City in 1976.
In 1988, she travelled to the US to have her abilities studied by Arthur Jensen, a professor of psychology at the University of California, Berkeley.
Jensen tested her performance of several tasks, including the calculation of large numbers.
Examples of the problems presented to Devi included calculating the cube root of 61,629,875 and the seventh root of 170,859,375.
Jensen reported that Devi provided the solution to the above mentioned problems (395 and 15, respectively) before Jensen could copy them down in his notebook.
jensen published his findings in the academic journal Intelligence in 1990.
In 1977, at Southern Methodist University, she gave the 23rd root of a 201-digit number in 50 seconds.
Her answer—546,372,891—was confirmed by calculations done at the US Bureau of Standards by the UNIVAC 1101 computer, 
for which a special program had to be written to perform such a large calculation.
On 18 June 1980, she demonstrated the multiplication of two 13-digit numbers—7,686,369,774,870 × 2,465,099,745,779—picked at
random by the Computer Department of Imperial College London. She correctly answered 18,947,668,177,995,426,462,773,730 in 28 seconds.
This event was recorded in the 1982 Guinness Book of Records.Writer Steven Smith said, "the result is so far superior to anything previously
reported that it can only be described as unbelievable.

Srinivasa ramanujan was an Indian mathematician and autodidact who lived during the British Raj.
Though he had almost no formal training in pure mathematics, he made substantial contributions to mathematical analysis,
number theory, infinite series, and continued fractions. Ramanujan initially developed his own mathematical research in isolation;
it was quickly recognized by Indian mathematicians. When his skills became obvious and known to the wider mathematical community, centred in Europe at the time, he began a partnership with the English mathematician G. H. Hardy. The Cambridge professor realized that Srinivasa Ramanujan had produced new theorems in addition to rediscovering previously known ones.
During his short life, Ramanujan independently compiled nearly 3,900 results (mostly identities and equations).
Nearly all his claims have now been proven correct.His original and highly unconventional results, such as the Ramanujan prime 
and the Ramanujan theta function, have inspired a vast amount of further research.The Ramanujan Journal, a peer-reviewed scientific journal, was established to publish work in all areas of mathematics influenced by Ramanujan.

Vashishta Narayan Singh was born on 2 April 1942 in Basantpur village of Bhojpur district in Bihar, India to Lal Bahadur Singh and Lahaso Devi. He received his primary and secondary education from Netarhat Residential School and college education from Patna Science College. Vashishtha Narayan Singh became a legend as a student when he was allowed by Patna University to appear in the two-year course of B.Sc. (Hons.) in Mathematics in its very first year. His achievements are still mentioned with a sense of pride by Netarhat Vidyalaya He received Ph.D. in Reproducing Kernels and Operators with a Cyclic Vector from University of California, Berkeley, in 1969.His doctoral advisor was John L. Kelley.He has suffered from schizophrenia. After a few years of marriage he and his wife separated due to his illness. He currently stays in his village without any attention from government.